Capítulo 7 – Thinking Transnationally
“In many cases, producers and brand makers have decided to utilize more participatory means of communication and informal means of circulation, but their ultimate aim is still the propagation of the mass-media content”. (JENKINS; FORD; GREEN, 2013, p. 259).
Audiences = multiplicity = “’more of the same’, and ‘diversity’, which reflects a range of alternative identities and agendas […]”. (JENKINS; FORD; GREEN, 2013, p. 260).
“[…] old debates about the homogenizing force of global communication do not deal with the complex interactions between diverse populations which shape the transnational flows of media content”. (JENKINS; FORD; GREEN, 2013, p. 264).
Piracy and inclusion – pirataria como ator no mercado de distribuição: mercado informal, desorganizado, sem ideologias, mobilidade e inovação. Modernindade pirata, piratas modernos no trabalho de Larkin (2008) sobre distribuição de vídeos na Nigéria.
“Piracy, […] has historically been a way to close those gaps created by the uneven and unequal circulation of culture allowing entry into contemporary conversations to which marginalized populations might otherwise be excluded”. (JENKINS; FORD; GREEN, 2013, p. 265).
“[…] piracy lays the groundwork for new business models for circulating media content”. (JENKINS; FORD; GREEN, 2013, p. 269).
“Increasingly, piracy allows producers to break into new markets without bearing the full costs of distribution”. (JENKINS; FORD; GREEN, 2013, p. 269).
Exemplo: Tropa de Elite e vazamento de rolos de filme.
APPADURAI, Arjun. (1986): estratégias de diversificação: “[…] remoção de coisas provenientes de uma zona de enclave para locais onde as trocas são menos confinadas e mais rentáveis”. (APPADURAI, 1986, p. 25).
APPADURAI, Arjun. (1986). Introduction: commodities and the politics of value. In:______. The social life of things: commodities in cultural perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 3-63.
Rede de estudantes que passa conteúdos, transnacionalização de conteúdos e mistura de culturas nas universidades. “[…] these international students may become fans of both works that reflect their heritage and new content they are introduced to by other students in the dorm”. (JENKINS; FORD; GREEN, 2013, p. 278).
“The ‘impure’ products create openings for pop cosmopolitans to find something familiar even amid their search for diversity, and they give expression to the unsettled feelings of diasporic audiences that may not feel fully at home in either culture”. (JENKINS; FORD; GREEN, 2013, p. 281).
Exemplo – exportações e co-produções telenovelas Globo p. 283. Exportações telenovelas mexicanas Univision, a colombiana Ugly Betty.
“These examples demonstrate how the telenovela format has developed and evolved as an impure genre over decades”. (JENKINS; FORD; GREEN, 2013, p. 283).
“This processes of adaptation and localization and this flow which sees reciprocal paths of influence as formats and content cross cultural borders demonstrate how impure culture is inevitable as content is continuously relocated and localized”. (JENKINS; FORD; GREEN, 2013, p. 284).
BOOTH, Paul. Digital Fandom: new media studies. New York: Peter Lang, 2010. (Digital Formations), v. 68. 231p.
• The structural determinants of social and political power in the global network society.
• The structural determinants of the process of mass communication under the organizational, cultural and technological conditions of our time.
• The cognitive processing of the signal presented by the communication system to the human mind as it relates tho politically relevant social practice. (CASTELLS, 2009, p. 8).
Power definition: “Power is the most fundamental process in society, since society is defined around values and institutions, and what is valued and institutionalized is defined by power relationships. Power is the relational capacity that enables a social actor to influence asymmetrically the decisions of other social actor(s) in way that favor the empowered actor’s will, interests, and values. Power is exercised by means of coercion (or the possibility of it) and/or by the construction of meaning on the basis of the discourses through which social actors guide their action. Power relationships are framed by domination, which is the power that is embedded in the institutions of society. The relational capacity of power is conditioned, bu not determined, by the structural capacity of domination”. (CASTELLS, 2009, p. 10).
“Relational capacity means that power is not an attribute but a relationship. (…) Asymmetrically means that while the influence in a relationship is always reciprocal, in power relationships there is always a greater degree of influence of one actor over other. (…) There is complementarity and reciprocal support between the two main mechanisms of power formation identified by theories of power: violence and discourse”. (CASTELLS, 2009, p. 11).
Frase inspiradora: “I fight my fights; I do no call upon others to do it for me, or even with me”. (CASTELLS, 2009, p. 9).
Link para resumo (em andamento): https://docs.google.com/open?id=0B2VuFFwvsCFpVFEzWnE5Zm11WEE
“(…) o paradoxo do senso comum é que mesmo que nos ajude a dar sentido ao mundo, ele pode minar nossa habilidade em compreendê-lo”. (WATTS, 2011, p. 13).
“(…) The paradox of common sense is that even to help us make sense of the world, it can undermine our ability to understand it”. (WATTS, 2011, p. 13)
Link para resumo do texto (em andamento): https://docs.google.com/document/d/1E_XyYB6NVusTuZSJj7_L-FjZUAad2sH0icFzrVM9yuc/edit
Privacy is a very important issue when it comes to digital. The way data is collected online and what happens to it is a much-scrutinized issue (and rightly so).
Digital data collection is also exceedingly complex, perhaps a reflection of the organic nature, and subsequent explosion, of the internet. Hence even sophisticated users find it difficult to know everything, one can hardly expect normal digital users to know what’s really happening.
For example, people are really shocked when they hear that even with no web analytics or advertising analytics tool on a site their behavior on the site gets automatically logged into server web logs. Information like IP address, the page requested, time stamps, browser ids and more are stored. These server logs can then be used to do basic reporting using off the shelf software.
See more about this point at: Occam’s Razor