Piracy as a distribuited model of today’s media content
Capítulo 7 – Thinking Transnationally
“In many cases, producers and brand makers have decided to utilize more participatory means of communication and informal means of circulation, but their ultimate aim is still the propagation of the mass-media content”. (JENKINS; FORD; GREEN, 2013, p. 259).
Audiences = multiplicity = “’more of the same’, and ‘diversity’, which reflects a range of alternative identities and agendas […]”. (JENKINS; FORD; GREEN, 2013, p. 260).
“[…] old debates about the homogenizing force of global communication do not deal with the complex interactions between diverse populations which shape the transnational flows of media content”. (JENKINS; FORD; GREEN, 2013, p. 264).
Piracy and inclusion – pirataria como ator no mercado de distribuição: mercado informal, desorganizado, sem ideologias, mobilidade e inovação. Modernindade pirata, piratas modernos no trabalho de Larkin (2008) sobre distribuição de vídeos na Nigéria.
“Piracy, […] has historically been a way to close those gaps created by the uneven and unequal circulation of culture allowing entry into contemporary conversations to which marginalized populations might otherwise be excluded”. (JENKINS; FORD; GREEN, 2013, p. 265).
“[…] piracy lays the groundwork for new business models for circulating media content”. (JENKINS; FORD; GREEN, 2013, p. 269).
“Increasingly, piracy allows producers to break into new markets without bearing the full costs of distribution”. (JENKINS; FORD; GREEN, 2013, p. 269).
Exemplo: Tropa de Elite e vazamento de rolos de filme.
APPADURAI, Arjun. (1986): estratégias de diversificação: “[…] remoção de coisas provenientes de uma zona de enclave para locais onde as trocas são menos confinadas e mais rentáveis”. (APPADURAI, 1986, p. 25).
APPADURAI, Arjun. (1986). Introduction: commodities and the politics of value. In:______. The social life of things: commodities in cultural perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 3-63.
Rede de estudantes que passa conteúdos, transnacionalização de conteúdos e mistura de culturas nas universidades. “[…] these international students may become fans of both works that reflect their heritage and new content they are introduced to by other students in the dorm”. (JENKINS; FORD; GREEN, 2013, p. 278).
“The ‘impure’ products create openings for pop cosmopolitans to find something familiar even amid their search for diversity, and they give expression to the unsettled feelings of diasporic audiences that may not feel fully at home in either culture”. (JENKINS; FORD; GREEN, 2013, p. 281).
Exemplo – exportações e co-produções telenovelas Globo p. 283. Exportações telenovelas mexicanas Univision, a colombiana Ugly Betty.
“These examples demonstrate how the telenovela format has developed and evolved as an impure genre over decades”. (JENKINS; FORD; GREEN, 2013, p. 283).
“This processes of adaptation and localization and this flow which sees reciprocal paths of influence as formats and content cross cultural borders demonstrate how impure culture is inevitable as content is continuously relocated and localized”. (JENKINS; FORD; GREEN, 2013, p. 284).